Diet and exercise in the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus

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Faidon Magkos 1, Mads F Hjorth 1, Arne Astrup 2

Main idea: Obesity is one of the greatest factors for the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus.  A weight reduction for 15 kg established remission in more than 80% of patients.

Abstract

Evidence from observational studies and randomized trials suggests that prediabetes and type 2 diabetes mellitus can develop in genetically susceptible individuals. Weight loss can produce remission of T2DM in a dose-dependent manner. A weight loss of 15 kg can lead to remission of T2DM in 80% of patients. Long-term weight loss maintenance is challenging. Carbohydrate restriction might help maintain weight loss and maximize metabolic benefits. Increases in physical activity and fitness are an important contributor to T2 DM remission. Preliminary studies suggest that a precision dietary management approach that uses pretreatment glycaemic status to stratify patients can help optimize dietary recommendations. Future research should focus on better understanding the individual response to dietary treatment.

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