Effects of exercise, cognitive, and dual-task interventions on cognition in type 2 diabetes mellitus: A systematic review and meta-analysis

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Samuel Cooke 1, Kyla Pennington 2, Arwel Jones 1, Chris Bridle 3, Mark F Smith 4, Ffion

Main idea: Meta-analyses of exercise trials identified a small effect size (0.31), which whilst not significant warrants further investigation.

Abstract

Introduction: Previous evidence has shown significant effects of exercise, cognitive and dual-task training for improving cognition in healthy cohorts. The effects of these types of interventions in type 2 diabetes mellitus is unclear. The aim of this research was to systematically review evidence, and estimate the effect, of exercise, cognitive, and dual-task interventions on cognition in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Method: Electronic databases including PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, SPORTDiscus, and MEDLINE were searched for ongoing and completed interventional trials investigating the effect of either an exercise, cognitive or dual-task intervention on cognition in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Results: Nine trials met the inclusion criteria-one dual-task, two cognitive, and six exercise trials. Meta-analyses of exercise trials showed no significant effects of exercise on executive function. Risk of bias was considered moderate to high for the majority of included trials. A meta-analysis could not be conducted using cognitive or dual- task data, but individual trials did report a favourable effect of interventions on cognition. The study was published in the European Journal of Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease.

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