Nutritional adequacy of very low- and high-carbohydrate, low saturated fat diets in adults with type 2 diabetes: A secondary analysis of a 2-year randomised controlled trial

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Jeannie Tay 1, Campbell H Thompson 2, Natalie D Luscombe-Marsh 3, Manny Noakes 3, Jonathan D Buckley 4, Gary A Wittert 2, Grant D Brinkworth 5

Main idea: In free-living individuals with type 2 diabetes, nutrition biomarkers within normal ranges at baseline did not change significantly after 2 years on a prescribed low-carbohydrate or high-carbohydrate diet. These results demonstrate the feasibility of delivering a nutritionally replete LC diet and the importance of considering nutritional factors in planning LC diets that have strong public health relevance to the dietary management of type 2 diabetes.

Abstract

Background: Growing evidence supports use of very low-carbohydrate (LC) diets for glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes. However, limited data on the micronutrient adequacy of LC diets exist.

Objective: This study compared the long-term effects of a very low-carbohydrate, high unsaturated/low saturated fat (LC) diet to a high-carbohydrate, low-fat (HC) diet on micronutrient biomarkers in adults with obesity and type 2 diabetes.

Methods: 115 adults with type 2 diabetes were randomized to one of two planned, nutritionally-replete, energy-matched, hypocaloric diets. Nutritional biomarkers- folate,β-carotene, vitamin B12, D, E, copper, zinc, selenium, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, iron, ferritin

Results: 61 participants completed the study with similar dropouts in each group (P = 0.40). For all biomarkers assessed, there was no differential response between groups overtime. Mean vitamin and mineral levels remained within normal (laboratory-specific) reference ranges without any reported cases of clinical deficiencies.

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