Main idea: Early evidence suggested the partial-gland high-intensity focused ultrasound was safer than whole-gland high-intensity focused ultrasound, and they had similar oncological outcomes. More prospective randomized controlled trials of whole-gland and partial-gland high-intensity focused ultrasound for prostate cancer was needed.
Background: We systematically evaluated the evidences on oncological and functional outcomes of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) as the primary treatment for localized prostate cancer (PCa).
Methods: A systematic review was used Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Library from the inception of each database. The review analyzed the oncological and functional outcomes of HIFU in the treatment of PCa. The RevMan 5.3 software was used for quantity analysis incidence of complications.
Results: Twenty-seven articles were included for analysis with a total of 7393 patients. Eighteen studies investigated the whole-gland HIFU, and the duration of follow-up ranged from 2 to 168 months. After whole-gland HIFU, the mean prostate-specific antigen (PSA) nadir was found to be 0.4 to 1.95 ng/mL and the mean time to PSA nadir was 2.4 to 5.4 months. The rate of positive biopsy after HIFU was 4.5% to 91.1%. Meta-analysis revealed the incidences of urinary incontinence, impotence, urinary obstruction, retention, and infection was 10%, 44%, 15%, 11%, 7%, respectively. Nine studies investigated partial-gland HIFU, and the duration of follow-up was 1 to 131 months. After partial-gland HIFU, the mean PSA nadir was 1.9 to 2.7 ng/mL and the mean time to PSA nadir 5.7 to 7.3 months. The rate of positive biopsy after HIFU in the treatment area was 14% to 37.5%. Meta-analysis revealed the incidences of urinary incontinence, impotence, urinary obstruction, retention, and infection was 2%, 21%, 2%, 9%, 11%, respectively.