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The most common cause of dislocations is direct, forceful trauma to the joint, either from a blow or from falling on it. Sports with high contact rates such as football and hockey put players at a higher risk for dislocation. It can also be caused by overtraining and previous overuse injuries, which taxes the shoulder and increases the risk of injury.
In some cases, epileptic seizures can cause dislocation if the muscles in the shoulder pull forwards or backwards too forcefully. Strokes may also cause partial dislocation when the muscles become paralyzed and the weight of the upper arm drags the shoulder down.