Main idea: The treatment of neuroinflammation by immune modulation therapy in Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy may potentially result in clinical benefits in terms of preventing and improving the painful peripheral neuropathy related to chemotherapeutic agents.
Abstract: Peripheral neuropathies are characterized by nerve damage and axonal loss, and they could be classified in hereditary or acquired forms. Moreover, neuroinflammatory components have also been shown in the spinal cord with microglia and astrocytes playing an important role in CIPN development. In this review, we consider different aspects of neuro-immune interactions in several CIPN preclinical studies which suggest a critical connection between chemotherapeutic agents and neurotoxicity. Taking together a better understanding of these aspects would permit the development of possible strategies to improve the management of CIPN. Acquired peripheral neuropathies are associated with several causes, including toxic agent exposure, among which the antineoplastic compounds are responsible for the so-called Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy (CIPN).