Parkinson’s Disease Cognitive Phenotypes Show Unique Clock Drawing Features when Measured with Digital Technology

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Main idea: one of the well-known cognitive tests (clock drawing) can be used as a diagnostic tool to distinguish Parkinson’s disease type.

Abstract 

A companion paper reports on the neuroimaging and neuropsychological profiles of statistically determined idiopathic non-dementia Parkinson’s disease (PD) The current investigation sought to further examine subtle behavioral clock drawing differences within the same PD cohort. 230 matched participants (115 PD, 115 non-PD) completed neuropsychological tests and dCDT. Statistically-derived PD cognitive phenotypes characterized PD participants as PD low executive (PDExe), PD low memory (PDMem), and PD cognitive well. Using a Bayesian framework and based on a priori hypotheses, we compared groups. Fewer strokes and slower performance to command were associated with higher odds of PD diagnosis. Larger clock faces in the copy condition were associated with lower odds of PD diagnosis. Longer disease duration, more pen strokes (command), and smaller clocks ( command) associated with high odds of being PDExe than PDWell. Digitally-acquired clock drawing profiles differ between PD and non-PD peers and distinguish PD cognitive phenotypes.

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